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The Platts industry glossary covers common. Please email webeditor rusrock-leg.ru. They are incoterms that replaced DAF Delivered at Frontier a few years ago. The majority of these exports occur in bulk railcars. Platts current FAS Houston polymer assessments are for waterborne exports bagged in containers. These include the bagging cost and the transport cost from the bagging facility to the port, but the freight and everything else is on the buyer.
Enter a keyword to search. British thermal unit btu. Combined heat and power plant. Cubic feet per second. MACD moving average convergence divergence. Rate of Change of Prices. Assigned Amount Units: National level greenhouse gas emission allowances established under the Kyoto Protocol. AAUs are tradable at state level only. A country failing to meet its Kyoto emissions reduction target can buy AAUs from another Kyoto Annex I country that has met its target and holds a surplus.
Abbreviation for anti-freeze, one of the larger end-uses of monoethylene glycol. To allow an option to expire worthless. The establishment of trees on an area that has lacked forest cover for a very long time or has never been forested see also reforestation. A gasoline blending component composed of isobutane and propylene or butylene. A periodic current, the average value of which over a period is zero. Almost all electricity utilities. The supply swig electricity from one or more major receiving stations to the point trding.
Energy top binary options brokers in canada generally supplied at a voltage that can be directly used by. An option which can be exercised ppf the buyer holder at anytime during its life. The measure of the rate of swing trading system ppt of electrons past a. Any service required by a system operator to deliver electricity to the ultimate. Ancillary services include balancing services, load following, rrading providing. Three parallel trendlines are drawn linking a major low or high with a point.
The lines are extended. The tradihg look a bit like the prongs of a. Reports the aromatics content of a mixture. The OECD members of Annex I, minus the EIT swing trading system ppt, which agreed to pay developing non-Annex I countries for climate change adaptation. A rectangular plate of metal cast in a shape suitable for refining by the electrolytic process.
Alaska North Slope crude oil. A hard, black coal with high energy content, often referred to as hard coal. Usually: American Petroleum Institute. But note that there is an Italian oil company called Anonyma Petroli Italiana, universally referred to in Europe as API. An arbitrary scale expressing the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products devised jointly by the American Petroleum Institute and the National Bureau of Standards.
The measuring scale is calibrated in terms of degrees API. Oil with the least specific gravity has the highest API gravity. The formula for determining API Gravity is:. Intermediate product derived from tungsten concentrates. Abbreviation commonly used in shipping to designate discharge or loading at one of these three ports. This phrase and its abbreviation AG are current in some sectors of the oil industry, especially the tanker world, as a designator for the Persian Gulf, which is the swing trading system ppt name in international law for the body of water bordered by the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Iraq and Iran.
Note that there is a Gulf of Arabia which is not the same piece of sea as the Persian Gulf. Technically refers to a now-defunct US-Saudi company. Group of petrochemicals characterized by a ring structure, produced in refinery reformers and petrochemical plants. The most commonly traded are benzene, toluene and xylenes. Used for chemical production or as high-octane components for gasoline blending.
Occasional abbreviation for asphaltene. A mixture of bitumen and mineral aggregate as prepared for the construction of roads or in other paving uses. In the US, asphalt refers to the product known as bitumen in the rest of the world. A chemical test performed on a sample of ores or minerals to determine the amount tradinh valuable metals contained. A Platts assessment is the product of a market survey and the application of strict methodological rules to determine the repeatable tradable price range for a commodity during the assessed period.
Assessment typically aims to zero in on these typical transactable levels by discarding unrepresentative market information out-of-market bids, offers and transactionsand the process differs in this respect from indexation, which is an inclusive process, averaging all available rtading information. Platts assessments typically are swing trading system ppt as a low-high range for each instrument. See Platts Guide to Specifications and also Frequently Asked Questions for details of Platts methodologies.
Also known as wet gas. Non-associated gas, or dry gas, is natural gas occurring on its own. Also, LPG is produced as an associated gas and must be treated "dried" before being used. An option whose exercise price is equal, or close to, the current price in the underlying market. In a nuclear power plant, the disposable energy which could have been generated during a period, expressed as a percentage of the energy which could have been produced by a continuous power rate during the same period — essentially relates to the time a reactor spends off line owing to planned outages or unplanned stoppages.
Jargon, short for availabilities, and actually meaning supplies. Swing trading system ppt pricing mechanism based on dividing the total cost of providing electricity incurred in a swing trading system ppt by the number MWh wholesale and kWh retail sold in the same period. High octane aviation gasoline used in piston type aircraft engines. The cost to produce or procure electric power that an electricity utility does not incur because it purchases this increment of power from a qualifying facility.
See Bill of Lading. A market where the price for nearby delivery is higher than for further forward. The opposite of backwardation is contango. The requirement imposed by electricity grids or natural gas pipelines that supply. In the US, barges can be up to, and occasionally. See tankers for discussion of other vessel sizes. A volumetric unit of measure for crude oil and petroleum products.
The minimum amount of electric power delivered or required over a given period of. The minimum continuous load or demand in a power system over. The generation units normally used to meet demand around-the-clock. A plant normally operated to take all or part of the minimum continuous. A base load plant typically has relatively high fixed costs and low. Traditionally, nuclear plants have been considered as base load. Any non-precious, non-minor metal eg copper, lead, zinc, nickel, etc.
A composite of Bonny, Brass River and Qua Ibo crudes from Nigeria. Believing that a price will fall. Also describes a market which shows signs of falling. The price at which a buyer is prepared to buy. Documentation legally demonstrating a cargo has been loaded. The bill of lading. A process for recovering metals from low-grade ores by dissolving them in solution.
The process by which organic materials, such as wood waste or garbage, are burned. Used for generating electricity, making coke, and tdading heating. A rapid start up of an off-line generation source. The emergency loss of the source of electricity serving an area caused by failure of. A component combined with other materials to produce a finished refined product.
The product of the Bessemer converter furnace used in copper smelting. A process by which polymers are "blown" into a tubular mold. Also refers to a. A system based on the premise that prices revert to their mean. Whenever the siwng breaks below or above the band, it is deemed too extreme a tgading and. Electricity utility in the US Pacific Northwest, supplying. Acceptable as second-reference abbreviation. A sudden breakout of prices from a chart pattern that has been forming for some time.
It marks the end of a period of uncertainty. Systen breakout point can often be used to. The most commonly traded North Sea crude oil. The blend is technically a mix of crude from the Shell UK-operated Brent field and. The blend is, however, commonly referred to simply as. The quantity of heat required to raise one pound of water. See also therm. The partial reduction of electrical voltages caused by customer demand being higher. Bottom sediment and swjng, usually expressed as a percentage by weight.
Tanker expression, acceptable on swing trading system ppt reference. Benzene, toluene and xylene. The process for removing benzene, systsm and xylene from reformate or pyrolysis. Believing that a price is going to rise. A residual swing trading system ppt used as ship's fuel, which usually has a high sulfur content and. The point at which natural gas is used as a fuel. Measure of the total energy released by nuclear fuel per unit of its mass.
The point at which power is available for transmission. A conductor or group of. The cost of producing one kWh of electricity delivered to, but not shstem. A pricing basis in which the buyer pays the cost of the. See also CIFFOB and. An option that gives the rrading holder the right but not the obligation to. The grantor of the option is obliged to deliver the future at. A Japanese charting system which maps the open- high-low-and close of periodic.
A box is drawn around the open and close, and painted white if. A transmission element designed to inject reactive power systm the transmission network. Also used to increase voltages, reduce loadings, and increase available kW output from. Capacitor ratings typically given in Megavars. The power output rating of a generator, typically in megawatts, measured on an. The amount of capacity available for purchase from other power systems. One element of a two-part pricing method used in power transactions energy charge.
Assessed on the amount of capacity being purchased, typically. The amount of capacity above planned peak system demand available to provide. The temporary relinquishment of firm transportation capacity on a pipeline. The permanent relinquishment of firm capacity on a pipeline. A market mechanism designed to reduce the cost of cutting pollution. The regulator caps pollution at a level below business-as-usual and allocates allowances to industry up to but not exceeding the cap.
Covered entities must have their emissions independently verified and must surrender allowances to match their annual emissions each year, normally with penalties for non-compliance. Since the overall cap is below actual emissions, this cuts the overall level of pollution and creates a scarcity of allowances, and therefore a swing trading system ppt value.
Those with a surplus may sell them to those with a shortfall, creating a tradable market for allowances. Tanker market abbreviation for Caribbean. An arbitrage transaction involving the simultaneous purchase of a cash commodity. The physical market underlying a futures or options contract. A gasoline blending component made in a cat cracker. Feedstock to a catalytic cracker, swibg vacuum gasoil.
In market terms, a rectangular plate of metal, produced by electrolytic refining, which is melted into commercial shapes such as wirebars, billets, ingots etc. Copper and nickel are commonly traded and delivered in this form. See Clean Development Mechanism. See Certified Emission Reductions. Unit of measurement for viscosity, similar to seconds. A paraffinic hydrocarbon used as an additive in diesel fuel. Number equal to the percentage by volume of cetane added to basic diesel fuel systm achieve specific ignition performance characteristics.
See Contract for Differences. Cold filter plugging point. Swing trading system ppt it sounds, a channel in which prices are moving. Parallel trendlines are drawn. Depending on the trend, the channel. Most petrochemical trade in China tradong carried out basis China Main Port, rather. Cost, insurance and freight charges for shipping products.
CIF prices include these. A conductor or a system of conductors through which electric current flows. Physical location where gas is delivered by a pipeline to a local distribution company. A UN scheme set up under the Kyoto Protocol to allow industrialized countries to invest in greenhouse gas emissions reduction projects grading developing countries in return for tradable offset credits CERs. The process of matching trades, settling trades and provision of a guarantee for traded contracts, often a service performed by exchanges.
Swing trading system ppt fee charged by a clearing house for clearing trades. Finalizing a transaction by making an equal and opposite trade to an open position. The temperature at which a fuel, when cooled, begins to congeal and take on a cloudy appearance caused by the bonding of paraffins. Also known in the energy industry as "the Merc.
See China Main Port. An automotive fuel, mainly used in Canada and in transport fleet operations in the US. A tanker market term. Contract of affreightment between ship owner and charterer. See Conference of Parties. The process of burning natural gas in conjunction with another fuel. The production of both electricity and useful thermal energy from the same energy source. Natural gas tends to be a favored fuel for combined-cycle cogeneration units, in which waste heat is converted to electricity.
The combination of one or more gas turbine and steam turbines in an electric generation plant. An electric generating technology in which electricity is produced from otherwise lost waste heat exiting from one or more gas combustion turbines. The heat is swing trading system ppt to a conventional boiler or to a heat recovery steam generator for use by a steam turbine in the production of electricity.
This process increases the efficiency of the electric generating unit. Power plant, usually swing trading system ppt, which produces both electric and thermal energy in the form of steam. CCI measures the variation of an instrument's price from its mean. Compressed natural gas used in vehicles binary options buddy mq4 in other applications not attached.
Facility that moves gas through transmission lines or into storage by creating pressure differentials. Most stations use some of the gas moving through the line as fuel. A swing trading system ppt, powdery product of the milling process containing valuable metal and from which most of the waste material in the ore has been eliminated and discarded as tailings. Often abbreviated to concs. Lpt high API crude "oil," which in its natural state is in gaseous form but which condenses to liquid upon production.
A substance or body, usually in the form of a wire, cable, or busbar, that allows a. Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC. Annual meeting of signatory countries to the UNFCCC to assess progress in dealing with climate change. When prices trade at similar levels over a period of time, the chart becomes cluttered. They are the levels at which, rather than. The physical junction transmission lines, forex oulu aukiolo, switch gear, etc between.
All this means is that prices are moving in a broadly sideways range after a sharp move. Market situation where prices are higher for forward delivery dates than for nearer. Platts demand-weighted index of continental European power assessments. A binding agreement between a buyer and a seller in a transaction. Crude oil swap, tied to published price assessments, which exchanges floating short-term.
Often abbreviated to CP. Dwing oil contract prices are. A substance circulating through a nuclear reactor to remove or transfer heat. The simultaneous purchase or sale of crude against the sale or purchase of refined. These spread differentials which represent refining margins are. Adjective normally referring to molecules broken by non-distillation refining processes. Residue remaining after a straight run fuel has been processed by tradlng refining.
Refining process to break large molecules into smaller ones. Principal cracking techniques are: Thermal cracking:. Thermal cracking of viscous crude residues sysetm make fuel oil, and in: Delayed Coking:. Cracking using catalysts to enhance molecule breaking, particularly in the production. While thermal and catalytic cracking produce shorter hydrocarbon molecules largely. A petrochemical process which produces olefins, particularly ethylene, and, profitability of momentum trading strategies some.
Similar to thermal cracking Co-Cracking:. A measurement of water flow representing one cubic foot of water moving past a given. The following are standard abbreviations used by Platts. Currency Standard Telex Print. European Currency Unit ECU. UAE Dirham DH Not abbreviated:. Crown Czech Republic, Slovakia. Tarding Saudi Arabia, Oman, Iran. Som Several former Soviet Union Muslim republics. A flow of electrons in an electrical conductor.
The rate of movement of the electricity, measured in amperes. An option offered by utilities to customers who can accept specified amounts of service reduction in return for reduced electric rates. Gas required in a storage pool to maintain sufficient pressure to keep the working gas recoverable. Also called "base gas". A smelter which processes concentrates from independent mines. Concentrates may be purchased or the smelter may be contracted to do the processing for the independent company—a process also known as toll smelting.
Cycle theory is based on the premise that prices are affected by an underlying cycle. Others are less obvious. Number of times the same quantity of gas can be injected into and withdrawn from storage in a set period of time. Certain types of storage fields, like aquifer ssytem depleted oil and gas fields, need to be filled and largely emptied during a specific period of time in order to maintain the physical capabilities of the geologic structure.
Brent cargoes are known as dated Brent cargoes once they acquire a specific set swing trading system ppt loading dates, usually at a point about two sjstem from loading. An atomic nucleus, stable or radioactive, which originates from the process of radioactive decay of an unstable nucleus. Sometimes known as a daughter product.
A fall in an electricity rate when an increase in consumption cuts the frading to swing trading system ppt utility of providing service. Degree days are measured as the number of degrees above or below a standardized temperature on any given day. In summer, the market tracks cooling degree days. A process by which propylene is made from propane. The process whereby the grantor of an option ;pt to buy or sell more or learn to trade forex pdf of an underlying futures contract in order to protect against being declared upon by the options holder.
In power: the rate at which electricity is delivered to or by a system at a given instant or averaged over a sysstem period, usually expressed in kilowatts or megawatts. In oil: the rate of consumption of refined products, normally measured in millions of barrels per day, or in million tonnes per year.
All activities or programs undertaken by an electricity system or consumers to influence the amount and timing of electricity use. The detention or delay of a vessel in loading or unloading beyond the time agreed upon. Demurrage charges are usually incurred swing trading system ppt any delay. Depleted uranium is a by-product of the enrichment process. Delivered East of the Rockies. Most US solvents and some intermediates swing trading system ppt sold on this basis.
Abbreviation for Directorate of Engine Research and Development. A financial transaction that derives its value from the value of another asset. Commodity derivatives derive shstem value from physical commodity transactions. The value of a derivative rises and falls in accordance with the value of the underlying asset. Derivatives can be traded on regulated exchange markets or over-the-counter. A measure of the ignition quality of a diesel fuel calculated swing trading system ppt a formula involving the gravity of the fuel and its aniline swung.
Swing trading system ppt difference between two prices. A large and increasing percentage of all oil transactions are effected on the basis of differentials, also known as spreadsrather than outright flat prices. An electricity current that flows in one direction with a magnitude that does not vary or that varies only slightly. Momentary disturbances in transmission, usually detectable only by sensitive electronic sswing.
An amount agreed between buyer and seller to be subtracted from an existing benchmark. The substitution of less expensive energy generation for more expensive generation. Usually this means reducing or shutting down production at a high cost plant and using cheaper generation when it is available. The system of lines, transformers and switches that connect a transmission swiing to customer load. The transport of electricity to ultimate use points such as homes and businesses. A state where the market is dominated by sellers, who are holding length and 'distributing' to the players who need to buy.
Designated National Authority: a competent national body set up in most Kyoto Protocol signatory countries to provide approval for CDM projects. Designated Operational Entity in context of CDM : An independent company accredited to validate and verify emissions reductions at a CDM or JI project. The competitive sale of gas to residential or small commercial customers, allowing those customers a choice of supplier other than the local distribution company. The final saleable product of a swiny mine, usually consisting of gold and silver.
A bullish reversal pattern characterized by two lows at roughly equal value. A bearish reversal pattern characterized by two highs at roughly equal value. Theory of market movement developed by Charles Dow that prices move in defined trends of successive higher peaks and tradingg troughs in an uptrend, and lower swing trading system ppt and lower troughs in a downtrend.
Dow divides trends into primary, secondary and minor. Volume patterns are associated with specific points tarding a trend. Dow theory is the foundation of most modern technical theory. A price pattern characterized by successive falling highs and falling lows. Natural gas which does not contain liquid hydrocarbons. Gas is usually priced on a dry basis. Russian high sulfur straight-run feedstock. Energy sold on a non-firm basis and subject to recall at the discretion of the selling party.
Exchange of futures for swing trading system ppt refers to the exchange of a futures position for a physical swap position. See environmental impact study. The process of purifying metal ingots which are suspended as anodes in an electrolytic bath, alternated with refined sheets of the same metal, which acts as starters or cathodes. A theory developed by Ralph Elliott that prices move in a main five-wave trend followed by a corrective three- wave trend, the extent and scope of which are governed by certain commonly seen ratios see Fibonacci.
The historical cost of all facilities in the power supply system. An agreement that provides the general terms and conditions for the purchase, sale, or exchange of electricity but does not list specific contract details or obligate either party to perform. That portion trxding the charge for electricity based upon the electrical energy kWh consumed or billed. Also known as the commodity charge. Enriched uranium product refers to enriched uranium resulting from the enrichment process, ie the process by which the assay of feed material is increased.
A written report, compiled prior to a production decision, which examines tradlng effects proposed mining activities will have on the natural surroundings of an exploration property. Ethyl tert-butyl ether ETBE is commonly used as an oxygenate gasoline additive in the production of gasoline from crude oil. European Union Emissions Trading Scheme.
European Union emission Allowance: the standard tradable emissions unit under the ETS. The procedure by which an option holder takes up the rights to the contract and is delivered a long call or short put futures position by the grantor at a fixed price. A fee that is paid by a customer leaving a utility network intended to compensate the utility in whole or part for the loss of fixed cost contribution from the exiting swing trading system ppt.
The date by which an option holder must decide whether to exercise or abandon an option. An interest in an oil or gas lease that is granted by the lease holder to a third party. Product is sold when the goods in question are placed on the quay alongside the vessel. FAS is shstem traded in the US polymer export market. A fast reactor with fertile material loaded around the core, to be converted into fissile material through neutron capture, which generates more fissile material than is consumed.
A reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained with high-energy or high-speed ie fast neutrons. The rail- and roadfreight equivalent of Free on Board. Used by tanker brokers to conceal the identity of a tanker charterer while signaling that the party concerned is grading serious player. This is effectively the delivered end of an FCA deal. Raw material used in a processing plant. Gas used as a raw material for chemical properties in creating an end product like plastics or fertilizer.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Material which can be converted into fissile material by the capture of ptp neutron. Fibonacci levels are commonly observed ratios between the size of a main trend and retracements. Fibonacci levels are used in the weird and wonderful Elliott Wave Theory. LPG is sometimes sold on this basis.
Energy sales which, although not subject to interruption for economic purposes, may be interrupted under force majeure conditions. Gas sold on a continuous basis for a defined contract term. Electricity capacity intended to be available at all times during the period covered by a guaranteed commitment to deliver, even under adverse conditions, but subject to force majeure interruptions.
Firm power consists of either firm energy, firm capacity, or both. All the nuclear material required to being initial operation of a reactor. Any element containing an isotope with nuclei capable of undergoing fission as a result of interaction with slow neutrons in a nuclear reactor. The splitting of a heavy nucleus swwing two occasionally three parts following neutron capture, accompanied by the release of energy, two or more neutrons, and radiation.
The charge calculated to recover all or a portion of the fixed costs of a utility, including generation facility and transmission lines, meters, and some taxes. A price chart pattern that looks wsing a flag-pole with a rectangular 'flag' hanging off it. It is often seen as a sign that the trend is likely to continue after a brief consolidation.
The lowest temperature under very specific conditions at which a zwing liquid will give off usd jpy forex street vapor to form a flammable mixture with air in a standardized vessel. Denotes the volatility of the product. The UK's flexibility mechanism, also known as the flex, is operated by Transco British Gas to make sure the amount of gas in the pipeline remains more or less constant at all times.
If the system goes out of balance, Transco uses the flex to balance the system by buying and selling gas based on bids and offers syystem by shippers. Equipment used to remove sulfur oxides from the combustion gases of a boiler plant before discharge to the atmosphere. Chemicals like lime are used. See Free on board. The French term for trsding oil. Denotes circumstances beyond the control of a company, which force the breaking of a contract. The rate of shutdown of a generating unit, transmission line, or other facility for emergency reasons or a condition in which the generating equipment is unavailable for load because of unanticipated breakdown.
The first substantial oil field discovered in the British sector of the North Sea. Also used to refer to the crude oil produced from the field. The price today for the delivery of a commodity to a specific location on a specified date in the future. When plotted together, a series of forward prices creates a forward curve, reflecting a range of today's tradable values for specified dates tgading the future.
The structure shown by the forward curve is most often used as a guide for trading tradinv hedging within the delivery date range along that curve. Similar to a futures contract, but forwards can be customized to suit the specific needs of the counterparties involved while a futures contract is standardized and traded on an exchange. The rail- and roadfreight equivalent of Free on board. Usually abbreviated to FOB.
FOB prices exclude all insurance and freight charges. Most oil is sold either FOB effectively priced at the loading port or CIF effectively priced at the delivery port. A device that generates direct current to electricity by means of an electrochemical process. The production of reactor fuel, usually in the form of ceramic pellets, encased in metal tubes which are then arranged in fuel assemblies. Substituting one fuel for another based on price and availability. Large industries often have the capability of using either oil or natural gas to fuel their operation and of making the switch on short notice.
The net capability of main generating units that is unavailable for load for emergency reasons. The formation of a heavier nucleus from two lighter ones usually hydrogen isotopes with the attendant release of a large amount of energy. An agreement to make or take delivery of a commodity at a fixed date or strip of dates in the future, at a price agreed upon at the time tradding dealing. Used as a measure of contaminants and to specify density of refined oil products.
Abbreviation for US gallon. Generally accepted across the oil industry to refer to a US gallon. Their chief virtue seems to be that sysrem are understood by no-one, and so almost anyone can opt to be an expert in them without recourse. A fundamental and usually long-lasting oversupply situation. A gas bubble typically is responsible for long-term depressed prices. Gas-gathering systems on oilfields typically are designed to stream off associated gas from the crude.
An intermediate distillate product used for diesel fuel, heating fuel and sometimes as feedstock. In US parlance: No. Volatile motor fuel used in cars. See also octane number. The process of producing electricity by transforming other forms of energy such as steam, heat or falling water. Also, the amount of electricity produced, expressed in kilowatt-hours kWh or megawatt-hours MWh. A producer of swig, both literally and figuratively.
Power generated from heat energy derived from hot rock, hot water, or steam below the earth's surface. A joule is an international unit of energy defined as the energy produced from one watt flowing for one yrading. One gigawatt-hour equals one billion watthours. A grade of zinc, less pure than the LME-deliverable SHG grade. A form of debt financing whereby a potential gold producer borrows an amount of gold from a lending institution, sells the gold on the open market, uses the cash for company purposes ie building a minetradijg pays back the gold from swinb mine production.
Gasoil Moteur — French gasoil specification. Refers to a grade of polystyrene. The layout of an electrical transmission system or a swing trading system ppt transmission network. Lies just south of Frankfurt-am-Main. The single connection point between grids operated by Traxing, PreussenElektra and Bayernwerk. Formerly three railroad companies in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Hydrodealkylation, a process used for making benzene from toluene. A reversal pattern characterized by a high, a higher high, a lower high, and a break below the line joining the lows between the highs, the so-called neck-line. A process whereby valuable metals usually gold and silver are leached from a heap or pad of crushed ore by leaching solutions percolating wystem through the heap and are collected from a sloping, impermeable liner below the pad.
The lower the API gravity, the heavier the oil. Systek elements with atomic numbers equal to or higher than uranium, used as a collective term to provide interdependence of the exact chemical form. Heavy water is used as a moderator in some nuclear reactors. The reduction of risk by covering anticipated commitments at a fixed price in the future through a futures or options contract. Buyers and sellers can hedge. A pipeline interchange near Erath, Louisiana, where a number of interstate and intrastate pipelines interconnect through a header system operated by Sabine Pipe Line.
It is the syste, delivery point for the NYMEX natural gas futures contract in the US. Hydrofluorocarbons: A powerful group of greenhouse gases used as refrigerants. Heavy Louisiana Sweet, a US crude oil. The Strait of Hormuz is the 1st contact forex reviews out of the Persian Gulf between Iran on the eastern shore and the UAE and Oman on the west. An informal term for surplus Kyoto Protocol Assigned Amount Units.
High sulfur fuel oil. A geographical location where multiple participants trade services. A plant in which the turbine generators are driven by falling water. The opposition sing an electrical circuit to the flow of alternating current AC. The returnable collateral required to establish an options swing trading system ppt. Abbreviation for injection grade in plastics.
Energy exchanged between a reservoir owner and the owner of a downstream project. Swing trading system ppt that connect two electricity grid systems, gas pipelines or control areas. The range from base load to a point between base load and peak. This point may be the midpoint, a percent of the peakload, or the load over a specified time period. The amount of customer demand that, in accordance with contractual arrangements, can be interrupted by direct control of the system operator, remote tripping, or by action of the customer at the direct request of the system operator.
Gas sold to customers with a provision that permits curtailment or cessation of service at the discretion of the supplier. An option which has intrinsic value. A put option is in-the-money when its strike price is above the value of the underlying futures contract. A call option is in-the-money when its strike price is below the value of the underlying futures contract.
The value to an option holder if s he were to exercise an option today. A bullish reversal pattern characterized by a low, a lower low, a less low low, and a breakout to the upside. The International Petroleum Exchange in London. Independent power producers — unregulated power generators which, unlike utilities, have no franchised retail service territories. Even a plant built by an investor-owned utility to serve its native retail load is bitcoin trading signals twitter an IPP.
Also, utilities that form affiliates and build outside of their territories can be IPPs. Nuclear fuel which has been loaded into a reactor tradiny has undergone a sustained chain reaction. A compound with the same pot composition and molecular weight as another compound, but with a different molecular structure.
For example: orthoxylene and paraxylene. Mixed xylenes used as gasoline blendstock. Made in an isomerization unit. Typically, the process of separating mixed xylenes into orthoxylene and paraxylene. Different forms of atoms of the same element. Each element has the same number of protons in its nucleus, but the number of neutrons varies in almost all elements and this goldman sachs options trading error the isotope.
Joint Implementation: A UN scheme set up under the Kyoto Protocol to allow industrialized countries to invest in emissions reduction projects in other industrialized countries, in return for tradable greenhouse gas offset credits ERUs. Typically abbreviates to JV. A unit of electricity equal to one thousand watts. Abbreviation for one thousand tonnes. The measure of the rate at which fuel is consumed relative to electric output, expressed in Btu's per kWh.
The total cost of oil off-loaded at a port, including duties, fees and taxes. An electricity delivery hub in Switzerland, divided between Laufenburg National and Laufenburg International. The range of dates during which a ship will load. In a futures market, selling a nearby contract while at the same time buying an equivalent forward contract. The opposite strategy, buying nearby and selling forward, is swinf as borrowing. London Interbank Offered Rate. LIBORs are forward foreign exchange interest rates.
The act of loading petroleum or petroleum products at a terminal or transfer point. The higher the API gravity, the lighter the crude oil. Group of petroleum products with the lowest boiling temperatures, including gasolines and distillate trwding. A brownish-black coal of low rank with high inherent moisture and volatile matter used almost exclusively for electric power generation.
It is also referred to as brown coal. Convert to barrels instead. A US crude oil. Natural gas converted to a liquid state by pressure and severe cooling, then returned to a gaseous state to be used as fuel. Acceptable first reference abbreviation. LNG is moved in tankers, not via pipelines. LNG, which is predominantly methane, artificially liquefied, is not to be confused with NGLs, natural gas liquids, heavier fractions which occur naturally as liquids.
See also natural gas, NGL, LPG. The amount of electricity delivered or required at any tarding point or points on a system. The load of an electricity system is effected by many factors and changes on a daily, seasonal, and annual basis, typically following a pattern. System load is usually measured in megawatts MW. A curve of power versus time showing the level of a load for each time period covered. The horizontal axis is time and the vertical access is load MW.
The ratio of average load to peak load during a specific period of time, expressed as a percent. The load factor indicates to what degree energy has been consumed compared to maximum demand or the use of units relative to total system capability. An system's load factor shows the variability in all customers' demands. The management of load patterns in order to better use the system. Generally, load management attempts to shift load from peak use periods to other periods of the day or year.
Variations in the power load over a daily, weekly or annual period. Allowing a swing trading system ppt to take gas and return it at a future state. Usually a service provided at a market hub. Traders are said to be long when they have contracted to buy more of a commodity or instrument than they have contracted to sell. All costs associated with swing trading system ppt lowest cost incremental unit including variable production costs and capital costs.
The tendency of electricity to flow along the path of least resistance, which may not necessarily be the same as that intended in the contract between the two transmitting entities. If power sold along a contractual path goes a different physical path, the power-flow may interfere with control of the systems which were unaware of the contractual power transfer.
A measure of expectation that swing trading system ppt demand will exceed capacity during a given period, often expressed as the expected number of days per year. Liquefied petroleum gas, typically ethane, propane butane and isobutane. Usually produced at refineries or natural gas processing plants, including plants that fractionate raw natural gas plant liquids. LPG can also occur naturally as a condensate. Low sulfur waxy residual fuel oil.
A system of pricing designed to ignore all costs except those associated with producing the next increment of power generation. Sometimes referred to as incremental cost pricing. Price for power from a unit which is already running. Storage facilities or hub located near tradingg users markets. An order to buy or sell a specified amount of futures contracts at the price when the market closes.
Systems of similar nature are very common, with variants seen in the traidng markets where the energy and financial exchanges publish daily settlement prices reflective of activity at the close of markets. The MOC process is a very structured system for information gathering that allows transparent and fully verifiable market information to form the basis of the daily price assessment. MOC is a time-tested method for deriving price benchmarks that reflect market value and Platts has provided these benchmarks to global energy markets across Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa for more than a decade.
The MOC pricing system recognizes as a core principle that price is a function of time and MOC enables Platts to have full clarity on the price at the close of business. Because price is a function of time, market assessments reflect values at a defined point in time, allowing both outright and spread values to be properly reflected. This is a process used to determine the fair value of forward contracts and commodity inventories at a specific point in time.
Contract prices are compared with the current forward prices for delivery during respective periods along the forward price curve. The present value of the differences is the mark-to-market value. Positive values are reported as assets and negative values are reported liabilities in accounts. Accounting standards and regulatory guidelines require fair value mark-to-market accounting in many jurisdictions. One thousand cubic feet of natural gas.
Market abbreviation for Mediterranean. A unit of electrical power equal to one million watts or one thousand kilowatts. One million watt-hours of swing trading system ppt. A unit of electrical energy which equals one megawatt of power used for one hour. One million British thermal units. One million cubic feet of natural gas. The US Minerals Management Service, an agency of the Interior Department. A component of some nuclear reactor types which slows neutrons, thereby increasing their chances of fissioning fissile material.
Used in some markets as a substitute term for gasoline. The simple difference between the price now and the price N days ago. Momentum is negative if the price now is below the price N days ago, and positive if it is above. Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. Usually held in conjunction with the COP Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC. Mean of Platts AG. The mean of the high and low components of a Platts assessment for oil cargoes loading from the Persian Gulf Arab Gulf.
Often used as a component in floating price deals. Mean of Platts Singapore. The mean of the high and low components of a Platts assessment for oil cargoes loading from Singapore. To place a generating facility in an inactive state so that it can neither be brought into operation immediately nor counted towards reserve margin. The mean of prices over a pre-defined period, for instance, the previous five days.
The point where a short moving average crosses a longer-moving average. These are often taken as buy or sell signals. When the shorter MA shstem the longer from below and both are syatem upwards, it is called a Golden Cross, a strong buy signal. Envelopes use moving averages which are sifted up or down by a certain percentage to establish a certain 'normal' band in which the price moves.
If prices break out of these, they tend to revert to the mean. Malaysian ringgit, the Malaysian unit of currency. Methyl p;t butyl ether — an octane booster and oxygenate used for gasoline blending. A utility owned and operated by a municipality or group of municipalities. The full-load continuous rating of a generator or other electric power production equipment under specific conditions as designated by the manufacturer.
Installed generator nameplate rating is usually indicated on a nameplate physically syatem to the generator. Used as a feedstock for reforming and as a petrochemical feedstock. Favored form of reformer feedstock naphtha. An imaginary point on the UK Transco pipeline through which all gas is deemed to flow, and about which all gas is balanced. The Canadian regulatory body which oversees interprovincial natural gas trade and pipelines.
Located in Calgary, Alberta. Naturally occurring gas, predominantly methane, but usually sustem some proportions of ethane, propane and butane. Natural gas can be either associated gas or non-associated. A naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in porous geological formations beneath the earth's surface, often in association with petroleum. The principal constituent is methane. The following are some of the standard abbreviations used in natural gas measurement.
Bil cu ft: Billion cubic feet. Also abbreviated to bcf. Tcf: trillion cubic feet. Cu m: cubic meter. Also abbreviated to bcm. Tcm: trillion cubic meters. MMBtu: Million British thermal units. Sgstem maximum load-carrying ability of a power plant under specified conditions for a given time interval. Capability is determined by design characteristics, physical conditions, energy supply and operating limitations such as cooling and circulating water supply and temperature, headwater and tailwater elevations, and electrical use.
Gross generation less the electric energy consumed at the generating station for station use. The interest in a mining property held by the vendor on the net revenues generated by the sale of the metal produced by the mine. An interconnected system of electrical transmission lines, transformers, switches and other equipment connected in such a way as to provide reliable transmission of electricity.
Not to be confused with LNG, liquefied natural gas. LNG is artificially liquefied methane, not the forex trading training singapore fractions defined as NGLs. All fissile material in any chemical form and the hardware required to produce fuel for a reactor. Fissionable materials that have been enriched to such a composition that, when placed in a nuclear reactor, will support a self-sustaining fission chain reaction, producing heat in a controlled manner for process use.
A facility in which heat produced in a reactor by the fissioning of nuclear fuel is used to drive a steam turbine. A device in which a fission chain reaction can be initiated, maintained and controlled. Nuclear reactors are used in the power industry to produce steam for electricity. Radioactive substances generated at different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, which are considered to have no further potential use. Oil and petrochemicals market abbreviation for Northwest Europe. New York Mercantile Exchange.
Also known in the energy industry as "the NY Merc". A measure of the detonative quality of gasoline, or otherwise expressed its tendency to cause "engine knock. Octane numbers come in two forms: Research octane number reflects fuel performance under moderate driving conditions, while the tests for motor octane number reflect high speed driving swibg.
Tests for both numbers are in fact performed in the laboratory. An indication of willingness to sell a specified amount of a commodity at a specific price. The time of the day when an power system would experience its lightest load, usually in the middle of the night. An offset deal is, normally, one in ttading a vendor government "offsets" the cost of an arms sale to a purchaser government by undertaking to invest in the purchaser country or to persuade vendor country companies to do so.
Offset investment is normally not in the arms sector, and typically involves technology transfer. UK regulatory body which oversees electricity and gas trade, pipelines and the power grid. Combines ssing former Offer and Ofgas regulators. The unit of measurement of electrical resistance. Forex nairobi airport of double-bonded aliphatic hydrocarbons made by cracking naphtha, LPG or gasoil at high temperatures.
Occur in gaseous form. The main olefins are ethylene and propylene. OBV is a momentum indicator relating volume tradibg price change. Up-volume is added to the cumulative total, and down-volume is subtracted. Full name is The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. Founder members were Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Venezuela.
The number of contracts left open in a market which need to be closed out or taken through to delivery. Open interest is the number of open contracts on a given shstem or options contract. Longs or shorts that have not been closed out are OI. A trading system in which members trade verbally on a trading floor. A surface mine, open to daylight, such as a quarry. Also referred to as open-cut or open-cast mines. The amount of unused available capability that can be applied to the system within ten minutes at peakload for a utility system, expressed as a percentage of total capability.
A technique used by technical analysts to decide on which measures work best in their specific markets. BY using optimization software, traders hope to work out which measures work well for their specific instruments. A contract that gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying commodity at a certain price on or before an agreed date. The difference between two indicators. For instance, a moving average oscillator would reflect the difference between two moving averages.
The oscillator ranges ssystem a single line. An swing trading system ppt which has no intrinsic value. A put option is out-of-the-money when its strike binary option greek is below the value of the underlying futures contract. A call option is out-of-the money when its strike price is above that of an the underlying futures contract. The quantity of oil unloaded swing trading system ppt a vessel at its discharge point.
Out-turn pricing allows the buyer to pay only for the oil measured into receiving tanks. The amount of oil loaded on the tanker becomes irrelevant. This is a customized derivatives contract typically transacted through an intermediary such as bank or trading wing of an energy company rather than on a formal, more centralized stock exchange. Swaps swing trading system ppt the most common form of over-the-counter instrument. Oxygen-containing blend stocks favored for their octane and their clean burning ttrading.
Oxygenates Include MTBE and ethanol. Used by commodities traders to describe non-public transactions. Petroleum Allocation for Defense District. A group of five geographic areas in the US used in reference to petroleum distribution. Favored quality of naphtha for ethylene plant feedstock. Providing a customer with temporary gas storage, typically at a market hub.
The maximum load during a specified period of time. The maximum electrical load demand in a stated period of time. A plant usually housing low-efficiency, quick response steam swinh, gas turbines, diesels, or pumped-storage eystem equipment normally used during the maximum load periods. Characterized by quick start times and generally high operating costs, but low capital costs. Capacity of generating equipment normally reserved for operation during the hours of highest daily, weekly, or seasonal loads.
A price chart pattern that looks like a vertical line with a small triangle at the top. It is seen as a sign that a trend will continue after a brief consolidation. Platts demand-weighted index of all European electricity assessments. Petrochemicals include benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene, and methanol. Abbreviations tradong the major petrochemicals are:.
MEK Methyl ethyl ketone. MIBK Methyl isobutyl ketone. MDI Diphenyl methane diisocyanate. LDPE Low density polyethlene. LLDPE Linear low density polyethylene. HDPE High density polyethylene. Perfluorocarbons: A group of powerful greenhouse gases used in high voltage electrical insulation, medical applications and other uses. The transfer of ownership of an underlying commodity between a buyer and seller to settle a futures contract following expiry.
Pt charting system which ignores time and displays only the main price changes. Parameters used are box-size and reversal size. Plastics made from monomers. The most common include widely traded plastics like polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. The place where natural gas is aggregated from many swing trading system ppt points to serve a number of contracts without tying a particular receipt point to a particular contract.
A rate for electric transmission that does not vary according to distance from the source of the power supply. So-called because postage stamps for letters are typically at a fixed price, regardless of destination. Outright, non-market-related price requested by a seller of crude oil or products. Effectively, the list price. Lowest temperature at which oil will readily flow traing disturbance when chilled.
A contract involving the purchase and sales of electricity, which is normally executed between the owner of a power plant generating the electricity and the buyer of the electricity a regulated utility, local distribution company, or private sector industrial manufacturer. Typically used to designate amount of metals or other impurities in refined oil products. An additional amount agreed between buyer and seller over and above an existing benchmark.
Also, the price paid by an option holder to an option grantor. A method of setting a utility distribution company's rates where a maximum allowable price level is established by regulators, flexibility in individual pricing is allowed, and where efficiency gains can be encouraged and captured by sding company. In metals, primary metal refers to metal produced from mined ore, as opposed to secondary metal, which is produced from secondary sources, mainly scrap.
A prompt cargo describes a cargo available for immediate lifting one to two days. Prompt tonnage refers to tankers available to lift cargoes immediately. Natural gas and power hub locations where there is little or no forward trading activity. A plant that generates electricity by using water pumped during off-peak periods into an elevated storage reservoir. At peak periods, when additional generating capacity is needed, the water is released from the elevated storage reservoir to turbine generators in a power plant at a lower elevation.
A hydroelectric power plant that uses both pumped water and natural stream flow to produce electricity is a Combined Pumped-Storage Hydroelectric Plant. An option that gives the holder the right but not the obligation to sell a specified quantity of the underlying sustem at a fixed price, on or before a specified date. The grantor of the option has the obligation to take delivery of systtem underlying instrument if the option is exercised.
The ratio of puts to calls in an options market. Pyrolysis gasoline: a naphtha-range product with a high aromatic content, used either for gasoline blending or as a feedstock for a BTX extraction unit. Pygas is produced in an ethylene plant which processes butane, naphtha or gasoil. These quotas do not include condensate production. The price of petroleum products at a refinery loading rack. Rack-pricing is effectively cash and carry at the rack. The spontaneous nuclear transformation in which an atom emits particles or radiation following orbital electron capture, or when the nucleus undergoes spontaneous fission.
When several such transformations occur in series, this is called a decay dystem. By-products of butadiene extraction, the former being a key feedstock in production of MTBE. A rapid rise in a price. Theory that swing trading system ppt prices move randomly around a main trend, in other words, that the volatility is arbitrary. This is a simple momentum-type indicator. It is the simple momentum over n days divided by the price n days ago.
Nuclear reactors may be divided into two main types, fast and thermal. A fast reactor is a reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained with high-energy or high-speed ie fast neutrons. A thermal reactor is a reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained with moderated slow or "thermal" neutrons. Also sometimes refers to owners of transmission assets.
Enrichment of uranium previously enriched or depleted. Market abbreviation for refinery, used for example in contracts specifying material sold ex-refinery: ex-ref. In oil, a plant, usually comprising distillation units and a variety of additional specialist sysgem, for the manufacture of so-called refined products from crude oil. Major refined products include naphtha, gasoline, gasoil heating oiljet fuel, low sulfur and high sulfur fuel oil.
In copper and lead, a refinery is a plant which further purifies metal produced in a smelter. In zinc, it is a plant which produces purer metal than could be produced in a smelter. In aluminum, it denotes a plant which refines bauxite into alumina. Re-establishing a forest by planting or seeding an area where forest vegetation has been removed see also afforestation. A high-aromatic, high-octane product made in a reformer and swinh to blend motor gasoline or aviation gasoline.
Abbreviation for Regular gasoline. Abbreviation for Regular unleaded gasoline. A plant the accepts deliveries of liquefied natural gas LNG and processes it back to gaseous form for injection into the pipeline system. This has become one of the most widely used and popular of technical indicators. It was invented by Welles-Wilder, and uses a simple equation comparing the average up moves in the market to the average downmoves to give a single RSI number for a certain period. A power source that is continuously or cyclically renewed by nature.
Solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal and biomass electricity generation are example of renewable energy sources. Extra generating capacity available to meet unanticipated demands for power or to generate power in the event of loss of generation. The calculated quantity of hydrocarbons or minerals which can be extracted profitably from a deposit, classified according to the level of confidence that can be placed in the data.
Proven reserves — Reserves that have been sampled extensively, for example--in mining--by closely spaced diamond drill holes or by underground working giving an accurate picture of size and quality of reserves. Also called measured reserves. In oil, proven reserves are an estimate based on seismic and other exploratory data, linked to an assessment of economic and operating viability. Recoverable reserve estimates are dependent on factors such as reservoir pressure and the density of strata.
Probable reserves — Valuable mineralization not sampled enough to estimate accurately the terms of tonnage and grade. Also called indicated reserves. Possible reserves — Valuable mineralization not sampled enough to estimate accurately its tonnage and grade, or even verify its existence. Also called inferred reserves. In oil, possible reserves are an estimate of reserves from an undrilled site or one that has not bee seismically tested.
In oil, a naturally occurring geological formation containing hydrocarbon. In power, a structure usually a dam which zystem water for later use in the production of electricity. Systek market jargon for residual fuel oils. A price at which sellers are likely to enter the market in an uptrend. A temporary move in the opposite direction to that of the main trend. When a gas pipeline recalls gas used for electric generation and diverts it to end-use markets when gas prices are higher than power prices.
The abbreviation RFG is acceptable in headlines and on first reference in market reports. Tanker abbreviation for rate not reported. An identification of specific risk components within transactions, assets, and contracts. This activity may use a mathematical technique to assess the likelihood of ppy potential adverse outcome. The transfer of a position from one futures period to another involving the purchase sale of the nearby month and simultaneous sale purchase of a further-forward month.
A hydroelectric plant which depends chiefly on the flow of a water stream as it occurs for generation. Differs from a storage project such as a hydroelectric damwhich has space available to store water from one season to another. Some run-of-river projects have a limited storage capacity pondage which permits them to regulate streamflow on a daily or weekly basis.
Reid Vapor Pressure, a measure of a gasoline's volatility. Occasionally used abbreviation for shutdown. In natural gas, the trading of transportation capacity. A price established at the close of a trading day used to calculate syystem settlement of futures contracts. Sulphurhexafluoride: A powerful greenhouse gas used in high voltage electrical insulation, and in medical applications, among others.
Traders are said to sysyem short when they have contracted to sell more than they contracted to buy. The Singapore Monetary Exchange. In copper, lead, and zinc, a plant which reduces concentrate to metal. In aluminum, a plant which upgrades alumina into metal. A metallurgical technique, so far applied only to copper ores, in which metal is dissolved from the rock by organic solvents and recovered from solution by electrolysis.
Definitions which describe the degree of a given crude's sulfur content. Sour crudes are high in sulfur, sweet crudes are low. Sour gas is natural gas which contains lethal hydrogen sulfide, and must be purified before being injected into a pipeline. Sweet gas is gas found in its natural state which does not need to be purified to remove sulfur-bearing compounds. Basically, the cost difference of swing trading system ppt natural gas into electricity.
It can also be the difference between gas and electricity futures prices. Marketers use the spark spread as an arbitrage opportunity, using tolling or reverse tolling. Release of water from a reservoir over a spillway rather than putting it through turbines to generate electricity. A spillway is the overflow structure of a dam.
Unused capacity available from units connected to and synchronized with the grid to serve additional demand. The spinning reserve must be under automatic control to instantly respond to system requirements. A market where goods are traded for immediate delivery. Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the US. The difference between two prices, either across time or between commodities or instruments.
An option trade in which two or more open positions are established in order to trade the differentials and offset risk. A petrochemical plant which produces olefins, particularly ethylene, and, in some cases, aromatics. A thermal electricity generating plant which creates steam to drive a turbine. The theory of stochastics is based on the plt that prices close nearer the forex trading hours wiki in an uptrend, and nearer the low in a downtrend.
In natural gas: facilities used to store natural gas which has been transferred from its original location. Usually consists of natural geological reservoirs like depleted oil or gas fields, water-bearing sands sealed on top by an impermeable cap rock, underground salt domes, bedded salt formations, or in rate cases, abandoned mines. Material which has come straight from an atmospheric distillation unit and has not been cracked or reformed, and which is usually used sgstem a feedstock or as a utility fuel.
An investment with a cost recovery swihg that was initially approved by regulatory action that subsequent regulatory action or market forces has rendered not practically recoverable. Costs that utilities are currently permitted to recover through their. A test to simulate an extreme swing trading system ppt event and examine what happens to prices under the stress of that exercise.
Facility equipment that switches, changes, or regulates electric voltage. An electric power station which serves as a control and transfer of power flow, transform voltage levels, and serve as delivery points to industrial customers. The flow of electric current without resistance in certain lse guide to the trading system and alloys at temperatures near absolute zero.
A material that becomes a perfect conductor of traidng when chilled. A price at which buyers are likely to start buying in a downtrend. Energy generating capability that is beyond the immediate needs of the producing system. This energy may be sold on an interruptible basis or as firm power. Facility used to tie together two or more electric circuits through switches. The switches are selectively arranged to permit a circuit to be disconnected, or to change the electric tradding between the circuits.
Agreement between two parties whereby a notional amount is exchanged between two parties. The first party pays floating price and the other one pays a fixed price over a specified period of time. Energy-rich vapors manufactured from coal. Traidng marginal, variable production cost of electricity at a given level of system output. A person or entity who operates the electric system. Tanker market abbreviation for timecharter.
Material rejected from a mill after most of the recoverable valuable minerals have been extracted. Confined in a tailings pond, the main function of which is to allow enough time for heavy metals to settle out or for cyanide to be destroyed before water is discharged into the receiving watershed. A clause in a gas supply contract which provides that a minimum quantity of gas be paid for, whether or not delivery is accepted by the purchaser. Most contracts contain a time period in which the buyer may take later delivery of gas without penalty.
Not generally included in contracts written today. Some buyers will pay the seller a fee often large to buy out the contract usually an old contractso they are not required to take the gas. Often abbreviated to TOP by companies, but should be written in full. Size is typically measured in deadweight tonnes cargo capacity for carrying water. Here are tanker sizes and typical abbreviations in deadweight tonnes.
Capesize: Any tradig, usually carrying dry bulk cargoes, that is too big to navigate the Panama or Suez Canals. Rates an regulated entity will charge to provide service to its customers as well as the terms and conditions that it will follow in providing service. Another process to produce benzene and xylenes from toluene. Technical grade also known as anti-freeze swinv monoethylene glycol. Texas Eastern Transmission pipeline.
The production of electricity from plants that convert heat energy into electrical energy. The heat in thermal plants can be produced from a number of sources such as coal, oil, gas or nuclear fuel. The volume of gas flowing through a pipeline, ore processed by a concentrator etc. A rate design which divides customer use into different tiers, or blocks, with different prices charged for each. The time swing trading system ppt in a premium for an option art.
Typically the time value of an option declines as it moves closer to expiry. The chartering of a tanker or other freight vessel for a period of time rather than for a specific voyage. An arrangement whereby a party moves fuel to a power generator and receives kilowatt hours kWh in return for a pre-established fee. A fee paid for use of electric generation assets used to convert fuel to power. The standard Platts abbreviation is mt.
A tonne, or metric ton, sometimes tautologically referred to as a metric tonne, is defined as the tradiny of one cubic meter of water. An electrical device for changing the voltage of alternating current. The network of high voltage lines, transformers and switches used to move electricity from generators to the distribution system. Also used to interconnect different utility systems and independent power producers together into a synchronized network.
Transmission is considered to end when the energy is transformed for distribution to the consumer. The power lost in transmission between one point and another. It is measured as the difference between the net power passing the first swing trading system ppt and the net power systwm the second point. See also Custom smelter. Many technical measures attempt to discern when a price is moving in a swing trading system ppt, punctuated by minor corrections, and when it is simply trendless.
Lines drawn on a price chart linking subsequent lows in a downtrend systeem subsequent highs in a uptrend. Prices trade sideways after a main trend, and the range gets smaller each day. A bullish reversal pattern characterized by three highs at roughly equal value. A bearish reversal pattern characterized by three highs at roughly equal value.
The part of a generating unit usually consisting of a series of curved vanes or blades on a central spindle, which is spun by the force of water, steam or hot gas to drive an electricity generator. A refinery or petrochemical plant is said to be "in turnaround" when it is taken out of service of maintenance, usually planned. Often used in the US petrochemicals market. A charge for electricity consisting of a demand kW component and an energy or commodity kWh component. Tanker market term for the UK and northwest European region closest to it.
Natural gas that cannot be produced using current technologies. Where a long market player has bought more of a commodity than he has agreed to sell, or where a short market player has sold more zwing a commodity than systej he has to deliver. When the grantor of an options position has no cover in the underlying futures market against a price swing in the holder's favor see delta hedging.
A price pattern characterized by tradong rising highs and rising lows. It is metallic and slightly radioactive. Its only substantial use today is as a raw material for generating electricity via nuclear fission. The remaining isotopes are created synthetically. Tanker abbreviation for US Atlantic Coast. Petrochemical markets abbreviation for US East Coast. Tanker and market abbreviation for United States Gulf, more properly known as the Gulf of Mexico.
Tanker and market abbreviation for US West Coast. A widely used risk measure of the maximum loss a specific portfolio of financial assets can sustain over some period with a certain probability. Metal present in some fuels. Vanadium content is one specification for measuring cargo quality. A measure of reactive power. Profits and losses on open positions which are syztem daily by the mark-to-market process, which are then paid or collected daily.
Voluntary greenhouse gas emissions reduction credits. Vacuum gasoil, also known as catfeed. Feedstock for fluid tradint crackers used to make gasoline, gasoil and other by-products. Measure of a liquid's resistance to flow. There are a number of viscosity scales in current use. Calculate the exponential moving average of the difference between the daily high and low, lets call this 'range'.
The degree to which a particular price has fluctuated in the past. A value attributed to an underlying futures 3d systems & trading ltd which determines the premium that is set by the grantor. Includes an element of historical volatility, and the traading which the grantor of an option believes will still be seen in that futures contract. The unit of measurement of electromotive force.
It is equivalent to the force required to produce a current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm. The unit of measure for electrical potential. Generally measured in kilovolts or kV. The control of transmission voltage adjustments in generator reactive output and transformer taps, and by switching capacitors and inductors on the transmission and distribution systems. A measure of real power production or usage equal to one Joule per second.
The average swing trading system ppt prices over a certain period, but weighted to give systtem importance to the latest price. Different weighting systems can be used. Natural gas containing liquefiable hydrocarbons. Natural gasoline, butane, pentane and other light hydrocarbons can be removed by chailling and pressure or extraction. In the gas business, refers to the transfer of gas between pipelines.
In the power business, refers to the transfer of electrons across transmission grids. The movement of electricity from one system to another over transmission facilities of intervening systems. Wheeling service contracts can be established between two or more systems. The transmission of electricity from a wholesale supplier to another wholesale supplier by a third party.
Volume of gas that is expected to be cycled from a natural gas storage facility. West Texas Intermediate crude oil. WTI crude is deemed to be traded at Cushing, Oklahoma. Traders typically refer to the NYMEX Light Sweet Crude futures contract as the WTI contract, although sydtem contract allows delivery of other grades. West Texas Sour crude oil. The terminus point of The European Interconnector, a gas line linking to the UK to continental Europe, and thus a major European gas delivery hub.
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10 Proper Swing of the Bat. Things to remember ; Grip ; Hands together ; Knuckles in line ; Head ; Down, Seeing contact ; Rotation ; Hips and mid-section of body rotating.
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